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NETZSCH

The NETZSCH Group is an owner-managed, international technology company with headquarters in Germany.

The Analyzing & Testing, Grinding & Dispersing and Pumps & Systems Business Units represent customized solutions at the highest level. More than 3,700 employees in 36 countries and a worldwide sales and service network ensure customer proximity and competent service.

The portfolio of the Analyzing & Testing Business Unit comprises conventional thermal analysis instruments such as differential scanning calorimeters (DSCs), thermogravimetric analyzers (TGAs) or thermomechanical analyzers (TMAs), instruments for thermophysical properties testing, adiabatic calorimeters (for example, accelerating rate calorimeters) and newly included, rheometers.

Rheometers for Measuring the Rheological Properties of Non-Newtonian Liquids and Soft Solids

Rheology is the study of flow and deformation of materials under applied forces which is routinely measured using a rheometer. The measurement of rheological properties is applicable to all materials from fluid dispersions such as oral medicines, nasal sprays and subcutaneous formulations for injection to semi-solids such as pastes, topical creams and adhesive dressings.

Rheometer methods are included in USP (US pharmacopoeia) and Ph. Eur. (European pharmacopoeia).

Thermal Analysis Techniques for Investigating the Properties of APIs, Excipients and Formulations

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is the most commonly used Thermal Analysis method for pharmaceutical applications and – along with thermogravimetric analysis – also mentioned in various pharmacopeias such as USP, Ph. Eur., JP (Japanese pharmacopoeia).

Typical application areas are:

  • Melting and crystallization processes
  • Polymorphism
  • Glass transitions (e.g., amorphous content)
  • Solid-solid interactions (e.g., compatibility between mixture components)
  • Phase diagrams
  • Specific heat capacity (cp)
  • Liquid fraction (solid fat content)
  • Eutectic purity


Thermogravimetry (TG) or Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)

Thermogravimetry measures the mass change of substances during heating. In addition, coupling of a thermobalance to a gas analyzing system such as FT-IR, MS or GC-MS allows for identification of the evolved gases and thus helps to elucidate the processes behind the mass changes.

TGA instruments can be applied to study:

  • Dehydration (or desolvation) processes
  • Thermal stability
  • Compound decomposition
  • Pyrolysis
  • Interaction of the atmosphere (e.g., oxygen) with the drug substance

Thermogravimetry can also be found as a method of choice for determining loss on drying in several monographs.

Finally, by means of kinetic evaluation (with NETZSCH Kinetics Neo), predictions concerning stability based on thermoanalytical measurements can be calculated that allow for statements which would otherwise experimentally not be accessible or only at great expense.

Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry- Thermogravimetry (STA) Instruments

The term STA stands for the simultaneous application of TGA and DSC to a single sample under identical measurement conditions.

It unfolds its advantages specifically concerning:

  • Small sample amounts
    (à application of two measurement methods in one run)
  • Large sample masses or samples which have the tendency to expand during heating
    (à crucibles up to a volume of 5 ml)
  • Measurements under humid atmospheres
  • Measurements under reduced pressure (e.g., vapor pressure tests via the Knudsen effusion method)

Accelerating Rate Calorimetry for Thermal Risk Assessment of Chemical Processes

For gathering information about the safety of already existing or new production processes, accelerating rate calorimeters (ARCs), often in combination with DSC instruments and the Kinetics Neo and Thermal Simulations software packages, can be used to identify thermal hazards and simulate worst-case scenarios.

An accelerating rate calorimeter is an adiabatic calorimeter which allows for monitoring exothermal events (runaway reactions) along with pressure changes while the sample is heated.

About NETZSCH

Our performance standards are high. We promise our customers Proven Excellence – exceptional performance in everything we do, proven time and again since 1873.

Our applications experience of more than 50 years in the Analyzing & Testing Business Unit, a broad state-of-the-art product line and comprehensive service offerings ensure that our solutions will not only meet your every requirement but also exceed your every expectation.

Contact details

NETZSCH-Gerätebau GmbH (Germany headquarters)
Wittelsbacherstraße 42
95100 Selb
Germany

Phone: +49 9287 881-0
Fax: +49 9287 881-505
Email: at@netzsch.com
Web: www.netzsch.com/ta

Capillary Rheometers

NETZSCH manufactures an array of capillary rheometers. The Rosand RH2000 benchtop capillary rheometer provides highly flexible measurement capabilities and configuration options for a wide variety of applications, ranging from polymer melts to pharmaceutical processing, and from foodstuffs to inks and coatings. Used in hundreds of research laboratories around the world, the robust ‘H’ frame design…

Modular Rheometers

NETZSCH develops a wide range of modular rheometers. The Kinexus lab+ is designed to withstand the rigours of a busy quality control laboratory, to provide robust and reliable rheological test capabilities. Ease of use is paramount in this environment, and the rSpace software enables standard operating procedure (SOP) driven rheological testing for test protocols that…

Asphalt and Bitumen Rheometers

The Kinexus DSR and DSR+ rheometers are a dynamic shear rheometer designed for routine analysis and quality control (QC) testing in the asphalt industry, with true ‘plug and play’ functionality for all measuring systems and environmental control units. The rheometers enable pioneering Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) based testing with a built-in library of standard test…

Differential Scanning Calorimeters

Our differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) products comprise premium instruments for research and development, material characterization and contract testing. The instrument serves for the investigation of: Melting temperatures and enthalpies of fusion Polymorphism (ability of a solid substance to exist in multiple forms or crystal structures) Crystallization temperatures and enthalpies Glass transitions (characteristic for amorphous areas…

Thermogravimetric Analysis Instruments

The TG 209 F1 Nevio and the TG 209 F3 Nevio are our high-performance thermogravimetric analysis instruments. The NETZSCH STA 449 F3 Nevio simultaneous thermal analyzer allows the measurement of mass changes and thermal effects under identical conditions at the same specimen. Thus it makes it feasible to differentiate between e.g., structural changes and degradation…
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