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A Short History of Cell Culture Media and the Use of Insulin

The first BSS was composed in 1885 by Sydney Ringer (1836-1910), a British clinician and pharmacologist from University College London who worked on the isolated frog heart.

Such solutions provided irrigation and supply of water, bulk inorganic anions essential for normal cell metabolism, osmotic balance (isotonicity), a carbohydrate such as glucose as energy source, and a buffering system to maintain the medium within the physiological pH range usually monitored by the addition of phenol red.

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