Enantia, a pioneer in this area, started working with co-crystals in 2005. Since then a considerable number of co-crystals have been developed and applied in different areas and diverse uses:
- To improve solid-state properties of APIs: several important characteristics of pharmaceutical substances like solubility, bioavailability, stability, hygroscopicity, morphology, filtration and flowability show relevant variations by means of co-crystal formation.
- To resolve racemates: enantiomeric resolutions are achieved by diastereomeric co-crystal formation and selective crystallization of one of the enantiomers.
- To improve purifications: co-crystals have proved an excellent method, especially with non-ionisable products but also with salt forming products, to purify some key intermediates, consequently avoiding more expensive purification techniques. These methodologies are being used at commercial scale.
- To crystallise non-solid products: liquids, pastes and oily products can become solid forms by means of co-crystallisation, thus leading to more robust and efficient manufacturing processes.